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Pipelines Across the world

Oil pipelines are made from steel or plastic tubes with inner diameter typically from 4 to 48 inches (100 to 1,220 mm). Most pipelines are typically buried at a depth of about 3 to 6 feet (0.91 to 1.83 m). To protect pipes from impact, abrasion, and corrosion, a variety of methods are used. These can include wood lagging (wood slats), concrete coating, rockshield, high-density polyethylene, imported sand padding, and padding machines.

Types of pipelines

Pipeline performance Pipelines are a safe and environmentally responsible way to move oil and natural gas. 99.999 per cent of all oil and natural gas products transported through transmission pipelines reach their markets safely (source: CEPA 2017). In Alberta, where the Alberta Energy Regulator (AER) manages provincial pipelines, performance is continuously improving. AER data indicates that over the last decade, the number of pipeline incidents declined 44 per cent while the length of pipelines grew 11 per cent. In addition to adhering to all regulations to ensure safe transport of energy, industry also follows best management practices to help manage pipeline corrosion and operating in high impact areas.

List of countries by natural gas proven reserves

List of natural gas pipelines

Intelligent Pig Inspection

Intelligent pigs are used to provide information about the condition of a pipeline and can be used to locate problem areas. Intelligent pigs are either ‘free flowing’ pigs, that are propelled by the fluid and are totally self-contained (onboard power, data collection, etc.), or they are tethered (or cable) pigs, that are connected to a power supply and/or data acquisition equipment via a cable. The latter can either be driven by motors, or pumped through the pipeline and are particularly useful for ‘unpiggable’ lines such as loading lines.

Turkmenistan–Afghanistan–Pakistan–India Pipeline

The Turkmenistan–Afghanistan–Pakistan–India Pipeline (TAPI), also known as Trans-Afghanistan Pipeline, is a natural gas pipeline being developed by the Galkynysh – TAPI Pipeline Company Limited with participation of the Asian Development Bank. The pipeline will transport natural gas from the Galkynysh Gas Field in Turkmenistan through Afghanistan into Pakistan and then to India. Construction on the project started in Turkmenistan on December 13th, 2015. The pipeline is expected to be operational by 2019.The abbreviation TAPI comes from the first letters of those countries. Proponents of the project see it as a modern continuation of the Silk Road.

List of natural gas pipelines

For natural gas, pipelines are constructed of carbon steel and vary in size from 2 to 60 inches (51 to 1,524 mm) in diameter, depending on the type of pipeline. The gas is pressurized by compressor stations and is odorless unless mixed with a mercaptan odorant where required by a regulating authority.

List of oil pipelines

Crude oil contains varying amounts of paraffin wax and in colder climates wax buildup may occur within a pipeline. Often these pipelines are inspected and cleaned using pigging, the practice of using devices known as "pigs" to perform various maintenance operations on a pipeline. The devices are also known as "scrapers" or "Go-devils". "Smart pigs" (also known as "intelligent" or "intelligence" pigs) are used to detect anomalies in the pipe such as dents, metal loss caused by corrosion, cracking or other mechanical damage. These devices are launched from pig-launcher stations and travel through the pipeline to be received at any other station down-stream, either cleaning wax deposits and material that may have accumulated inside the line or inspecting and recording the condition of the line.

OIL AND GAS PIPELINE ACCIDENTS

Pipelines conveying flammable or explosive material, such as natural gas or oil, pose special safety concerns.

List of pipeline accidents

The following is a list of pipeline accidents: This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries.

Iran–Pakistan gas pipeline

The Iran–Pakistan gas pipeline, also known as the Peace pipeline, or IP Gas,[2] is an under-construction 2,775-kilometre (1,724 mi) pipeline to deliver natural gas from Iran to Pakistan.

Arab Gas Pipeline

The Arab Gas Pipeline is a natural gas pipeline in the Middle East. It exports Egyptian natural gas to Jordan, Syria, and Lebanon, with a branch underwater pipeline to Israel. It has a total length of 1,200 kilometres (750 mi) at a cost of US$1.2 billion.

Energy in Egypt

Egypt is an important non-OPEC energy producer. It has the sixth largest proved oil reserves in Africa. Over half of these reserves are offshore reserves. Although Egypt is not a member of OPEC, it is a member of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries.

Geographical coverage

World OECD1 Total, Africa, Non-OECD Americas, Non-OECD Asia (excluding China), China (People’s Republic of China and Hong Kong, China), Non-OECD Europe and Eurasia, Middle East, World aviation bunkers and World marine bunkers.

Sino-Myanmar pipelines

Sino-Myanmar pipelines refers to planned oil and natural gas pipelines linking Myanmar's deep-water port of Kyaukphyu (Sittwe) in the Bay of Bengal with Kunming in Yunnan province of China.

Virtual pipelines

Virtual pipelines are scheduled shipments of oil from point A to point B, either by water, in ocean-going or coastal tankers and barges, or overland in containers by rail or road. Virtual gas pipeline operations supply markets that are either too small for normal LNG large-scale carriers or too geographically challenging to justify an investment in pipeline construction. Virtual pipelines supply gas to domestic customers, industry and electricity generation plants almost anywhere that is accessible by road or sea

MPCL

MPCL

MPCL

MPCL

MARI PETROLEUM COMPANY LIMITED (MPCL)

MARI PETROLEUM COMPANY LIMITED (MPCL)

Foundation Gas, brand named Fongas– RAWALPINDI

Foundation Gas, brand named Fongas– RAWALPINDI

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